Drug and Alcohol abuse in teenagers and children
Finding out, or suspecting, your child or teenager has a problem with drugs or alcohol is a very worrying time for parents – not only is it hard to know how best to help your child, but many parents will worry about the long-term impact it will have on their child’s health and wellbeing. We can help.
Signs your child or teenager is using drugs or alcohol
The brain undergoes a huge amount of development during adolescence, so using substances like cannabis, legal highs or cocaine can potentially have a greater long-term impact on a teenager than it would for fully developed adults.
The signs that your child or teenager may be using drugs or alcohol will depend on several factors, for instance, what they are using and their own personality.
But, if your child is showing some of the following signs and you suspect something isn’t right, it’s always best to check things out – the following signs might be a sign of another disorder like depression or anxiety.
Behavioural signs you teenager may be using drugs or alcohol
Truancy from school
New social group
Going out more often / staying out late
Changes to personality
Hostility or violence towards others
Stealing/lying/valuables going missing
Increased risk to self and others
Anxiety and depression
Psychosis – hearing voices, hallucinating
Physical signs your teenager may be using drugs or alcohol
Tiredness and lethargy
Loss of coordination
Finding or smelling drugs/alcohol on them
Causes of drug & alcohol use in children and teenagers
It’s likely that a combination of factors is the cause of your child or teen’s substance use and these can include:
- Peer pressure
- Exam or school pressure
- Testing boundaries
- Managing difficult emotions/feelings
- Other mental health conditions
Research has shown that there is a strong likelihood that children and teenagers who use drugs and alcohol will have another mental health condition and may be using the substances to help them cope with some of their negative feelings.
The most common conditions are behavioural disorders. Up to 50%2 of young people who have abused drugs will have a conduct disorder (CD) or oppositional defiance disorder (ODD), but depression, anxiety, PTSD and ADHD are also common.
Studies with twins show that there is a strong hereditary link for drug and alcohol use, some estimate that around 50% of children or teens who use drugs and alcohol will have a close family member with an addiction3.
It’s common for young people to start by using drugs like cannabis or having the odd drink and then for things to escalate in terms of severity and frequency. We know that addiction is a progressive disease with long-term physical and mental health consequences, so early intervention is crucial to ensuring that things don’t get worse.
Treating drug and alcohol issues in children and teenagers
The first step to getting help for your child is an assessment with a child and adolescent psychiatrist, who will be able to determine if there are any other mental health conditions that could also be present.
If your child is depressed or has anxiety or ADHD, it may be that dealing with these conditions first will help them reduce their usage. Medication and talking therapies are effective in dealing with a wide variety of conditions.
Talking therapies such as CBT and Motivational Interviewing can be helpful for your child – by being able to talk to someone objective about their feelings and experiences, many young people will gain a sense of self-esteem and self-worth that is often lacking in those that turn to drugs or alcohol.
No matter what psychological therapies are used, there should typically be a family component to the treatment of substance use disorders in young people. This will allow all the family members to be heard and these sessions can support and embed the principles your child is learning through their individual therapy, into the home unit.